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  1. Kusha grass: A kind of lily used in religious ceremonies.
  2. Lion king throne: A Buddha's throne or seat. A Buddha is likened to the lion, king of beasts, because of his fearlessness.
  3. Four bodhisattvas: Bodhisattvas Me, Kudokurin, Kongodo and Kongozo who appear in the Kegon Sutra.
  4. Nine Honored Ones of the Eight Petals and the Thirty-seven Honored Ones- Symbolism found in the Shingon sutras. Eight petals represent the lotus blossom. on four of the eight petals, four Buddhas seat themselves, while four bodhisattvas sit on the other four. Damichi Buddha is situated in the center of the lotus. This scene is described in the Dainichi Sutra. The Kongocha Sutra depicts thirty-seven Buddhas and bodhisattvas including Dainichi Buddha.
  5. According to the Daibon Sutra, a thousand Buddhas appeared in the ten directions, but they did not assemble on the occasion when the Daibon Sutra was preached.
  6. Four Buddhas of the four directions: See p. 95, footnote 76.
  7. Incarnations here mean the manifold forms which a Buddha himself assumes. Emanations are the manifestations of one true Buddha.
  8. Hokke Gengi, vol. 9.
  9. Four bodhisattvas of the Dainichi Sutra: Monju, Fugen, Miroku and Kannon.
  10. Sixteen great bodhisattvas of the Kongbcha Sutra: The four bodhisattvas who follow each of the Buddhas of the four quarters of the universe.
  11. The other three sages are Yin Shou, Wu Ch'eng and Lao Tzu. See p. 72 footnote 8.
  12. Four White-haired Recluses of Mount Shang: Emperor Kao-tsu (256-195 B.C.), founder of the Han dynasty, tried to disown his son, the future Emperor Hui. Hui's mother, Empress Lii, persuaded four eminent recluses who lived on Mount Shang to become his advisors. They were known as Master Tung-yuan, Scholar Lu-Ii, Ch'i Li-chi and Master Hsia-huang. On seeing these four recluses, the emperor was so impressed by their dignity that he finally accepted Hui as his successor.
  13. This sentence is found in the Hokke Mongu.
  14. Lotus Sutra, chap. 15.
  15. Hokke Mongu, vol. 9.
  16. Hokke Mongu Ki, vol. 9.
  17. Ajita: An epithet of Miroku, meaning invincible."
  18. Lotus Sutra, chap. 15. The following passage is also found in the same chapter.
  19. Gaya: A city in Magadha, sixty miles southwest of Pataliputra.
  20. Great Treasure Chamber: Treasure chamber supposed to stand on the border between the worlds of form-and desire.
  21. White Heron Lake: Lake which existed in the Bamboo Grove Monastery in Rajagriha, Magadha.
  22. Shotoku: See p. 13, footnote 30.
  23. Lotus Sutra, chap. 15.
  24. The Devadatta chapter reveals the master-disciple relationship between Devadatta and Shakyamuni in their previous existence. In a previous existence Shakyamuni was a king. In order to learn the Mahayana teachings, he served as hermit named Ashi for one thousand years. After relating this story, he identifies the king as himself and Ashi as Devadatta. He is now the teacher of the man who once taught him. The Devadatta chapter thus provides the answer to the question posed in the Kammuryoju Sutra.
  25. Anrakugyo chapter: The fourteenth chapter of the sutra and the last chapter of the theoretical teaching. In the theoretical teaching, Shakyamuni did not reveal his original attainment of Buddhahood in the distant past.
  26. Kegon-kyo Goron, vol. I.
  27. Hizo Hoyaku, written by Kabo.
  28. First stage of security and the first stage of development: The first of the ten stages of security and the first of the ten stages of development, which Comprise part of the fifty-two stages of bodhisattva practice. See also Fifty-two stages of bodhisattva practice in the Glossary.
  29. A Hinayana practice for eradicating the illusions of thought and desire.
  30. When Shakyamuni Buddha preached the earlier sutras, he manifested various aspects of Buddhahood according to the superiority or inferiority Of the sutras. When he expounded the zakyo teachings and tsugyo (higher than zakyo) teachings, he manifested himself respectively as the Buddha in the inferior property-of-action aspect and the Buddha in the superior property-ofaction aspect.
  31. Hokke Gohyakumon Ron.
  32. When Dengyo went to China, he chiefly studied Tien-t'ai's teachings which are based on the Lotus Sutra. In Japan he asserted the supremacy of the Lotus Sutra. However, when he came back to Japan, he also brought esoteric teachings with him. Because he brought them earlier than Kobo, founder of the esoteric Shingon sect in Japan, he is regarded as the patriarch of both esoteric and exoteric Buddhism in Japan.
  33. A sense of fatherly sternness stands for the seed of Buddhahood, and a sense of motherly love represents the nurturing of the seed to maturity. The earlier sutras do not reveal the seed of Buddhahood. Therefore, they are unable to help people attain Buddhahood. On the other hand, the Lotus Sutra contains the seed of Buddhahood as well as the blessing of maturing.
  34. That is, they do not reveal the Buddha's attainment of enlightenment in the distant past.
  35. Chao Kao (d. 207 B.C.): Minister to Shih-huang-ti (259-210 B.C.), first emperor of the Ch'in dynasty. When Shih-huang-ti died of illness, the cunu[ch official Chao Kao issued a false edict setting the emperor's youngest son on the throne. He brought about the death of the emperor's eldest son, as well as many generals and high ministers and finally the second emperor. He wielded power and attempted to control the throne. He was finally killed by the third ruler, Shih-huang-ti's grandson.
  36. Dokyo (d. 772 A.D.): Monk who cured Empress K6ken of illness. Taking advantage ofher favor, he commanded power and attempted to take the throne, but failed.
  37. In his Hokke Ron, Vasubandbu asserted the superiority of the Lotus Sutra over all other sutras from ten viewpoints. "The seeds without Peer" is the first of them.
  38. "I" means Mahavairochana Buddha.
  39. Mandalas of the two worlds: The Womb World mandala of the Dainichi Sutra and the Diamond World mandala of the Kongacha Sutra. The terms womb and diamond here indicate respectively the all-inclusiveness or productivity and the wisdom of Damichi, or Mahavairochana, Buddha.
  40. When Shan-wu-wei came from India to China in the reign of Emperor Hsilan-tsung, the T'ien-t'ai sect had established the supremacy of the Lotus Sutra. Shan-wu-wei induced 1-hsing, a priest of the T'ien-t'ai sect, to write a treatise on the Dainichi Sutra and to assert the supremacy of the Dainichi Sutra over the Lotus with respect to the practice of mudras and mantras.
  41. Ebyo Sho.
  42. Poem from the ninth volume of the Kokin Waka Sha (Collection Of Ancient and Modern Poetry).
  43. Liang-hsu: Ninth successor to T'ien-t'ai. In 851, when Chisho, the fifth patriarch of the Tendai sect in Japan, came to China, he studied the teachings of the T'ien-t'ai sect under Liang-hsu.
  44. A rephrasing of the Juketsu Sho.
  45. In his Jikifushin Ron, Kobo explained ten stages of mind's development. He placed a follower of the Lotus Sutra in the eighth stage, and a follower of the Kegon Sutra in the ninth. Ultimately he placed a follower of the Shingon teaching in the highest, tenth stage, because he is one who has obtained the secret teaching.
  46. In his Hokke Genron, Chia-hsiang asserted that the Lotus Sutra was inferior to the Hannya Sutra.
  47. The original consists of seven volumes and its revision, of twelve volumes.
  48. Save the countless sentient beings: See p. 138, fooqiote 179.
  49. The Buddhas of the six directions are Ashuku Buddha in the east, Nichigatsu TC)my6 Buddha in the south, Amida Buddha in the west, Enken Buddha in the north, Shishi Buddha below and Bonnon Buddha above. The twenty-five bodhisattvas protect all who worship Amida Buddha. They are Bodhisattvas Kannon, Seishi, Yaku45 and so on.
  50. 1,200 venerable ones: Venerable Buddhas, bodhisattvas and others inscribed on the two Shingon mandalas (see footnote 39).
  51. Seven sects: The six Nara sects (see Glossary) and the Shingon sect.
  52. Two places and three assemblies: The scene where Shakyamuni preached the Lotus Sutra. The two places are atop Eagle Peak and in the air. The three assemblies are: the first assembly at Eagle Peak, the assembly in the air, and the second assembly at Eagle Peak. The first assembly at Eagle Peak continues from the first chapter through the first half of the Hodo (11th) chapter. The assembly in the air lasts from the latter half of the Hata chapter to the Zokurui (22nd) chapter, and the second assembly at Eagle Peak from the Yakub (23rd) chapter to the Fugen (28th) chapter.
  53. Fires come at the end of the kalpa: See p. 114, footnote 116.
  54. The Queen Mother of the West is a legendary goddess in China. The peaches in her garden are said to bear fruit once in three thousand years.
  55. The udumbara flower is said to bloom once every three thousand years to herald the appearance of a gold-wheel-turning monarch in the world.
  56. Liu Pang and Hsiang Yo took advantage of the confusion following the death of  Shih-huang-ti, the first emperor of the Ch'in dynasty, to raise an army and overthrow the dynasty. Thereafter, the two engaged in a protracted struggle for power. This ended in the victory of Liu Pang, who founded the Han dynasty in zo6 B.C,
  57. The Minamoto clan, led by Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147-1199), waged a long 'campaign to wrest political power from the Taira clan. The Tairas were finally defeated at Dannoura, and Taira no Munemori (1'47-1185), the last head of his clan, died in the battle. Minamoto no Yoritorno subsequently established the Kamakura shogunate.
  58. Dragon kings and the garuda birds at the Icy Lake: The garuda are gigantic birds in Indian mythology that are said to feed on dragons. The Icy Lake, located at the summit of the Snow Mountains, contains cool, clear water which removes all sufferings. This lake is said to be inhabited by a dragon king.
  59. Three divisions of the Tripitaka: Sutras, rules of discipline and treatises on the Buddhist doctrines. Tripitaka literally means "three Easkets" but here indicates the three divisions of the, Buddhist canon.
  60. Maka Shikan, vol. 6. "The truth" here indicates the enlightenment set forth in Hinayana teachings. The quotation indicates that although the way to this enlightenment is divided into four, all of these equally lead to enlightenment.
  61. The Hosso sect divides all of Shakyamuni's teachings into three. The first period contains the doctrine of the Four Truths, which corresponds to the Hinayana teaching. The second period includes the teachings which assert that the essential nature of all things is kfi. This doctrine is intended to refute attachment to the Hinayana teachings. The Hannya Sutra belongs to the second period. The teachings in the third period reveal the Consciousness-Only doctrine and refute extreme attachment to the doctrine of ka. The third period includes the Jimmitsu, Lotus, Kegon and Nirvana sutras. Among them, the Jimmitsu Sutra is most highly valued by the Hosso sect.
  62. Nirvana Sutra.
  63. Persons of the first, second, third and fourth ranks: Reliable Buddhist teachers who appear after the Buddha's death. They are classified into four ranks according to the levels of their understanding. In his Hokke Gengi T'ient'ai applied the fifty-two stages of bodhisattva practice to the four ranks. The persons of the first rank correspond to those who have not yet attained the first stage of security. The persons of the second rank are those in the ten stages of security. The persons of the third rank are those in the ten stages ofpractice and the ten stages of devotion. The persons of the fourth ranl~ are those in the ten stages of development and the stage of t5gaku in which one has almost approached the enlightenment of the Buddha.
  64. Nirvana Sutra.
  65. Hokke Gengi, vol. 10.
  66. Hokke Shuku.
  67. Juketsu Sho.
  68. Hokke Mongu Ki, vol. 7.
  69. Hokke Gengi Shakusen, vol. 6.
  70. Jinriki Sutra: The Jinriki chapter of the Kegon Sutra is regarded as a single sutra , called the Jinriki Sutra.
  71. Vinaya, abhidharma, prajnaparamita, dharani: Vinaya means the disAline, or monastic rules, one of the three divisions of the canon, or Tripitaka. A hidharma are commentaries on Buddhist doctrines. Prajnaparamita is the highest of the sixparamitas or the virtue ofwisdom which enables one to attain enlightenment. Dharani are syllables which are supppsed to possess esoteric powers.
  72. Four grave offenses: Killing, stealing, carnality and lying. These four grave prohibitions are for monks, while the eight serious offenses are prohibitions for nuns.
  73. Eight grave offenses: Besides the four grave offenses, (5) obscene contact with a male; (6) any sort of improper association (leading to carnality); (7) concealing the misbehavior (of an equal or inferior); (8) following a monk whose offense has been exposed.
  74. Four noble truths: Basic teachings of Hinayana Buddhism. The first is that all existence is suffering. The second is that suffering is caused by selfish craving. The third is that selfish craving must be eliminated. The fourth is that selfish craving can be eliminated by following the eightfold path.
  75. Great Vehicle: The way of bodhisattvas.
  76. Dharma nature: The real, unchanging nature innate in the phenomena, world.
  77. Master of Secrets: Kongosatta. Dainichi Buddha is said to have transferred the law to Kongosatta.
  78. Alaya-consciousness: The deepest of the eight consciousnesses. It is regarded as giving rise to all phenomena, knowledge and experience.
  79. Sutras: Here, one of the twelve divisions of the canon, the parts in prose style which discourse on doctrines.
  80. Ben Kemmitsu Nikyo Ron.
  81. Ibid.
  82. This refers to the Chinese monk Fa-hsien's journey to India. Deploring the lack of Buddhist scriptures in China, he left Ch'ang-an in 399 to seek theni. He went overland to India and there learned Sanskrit and studied the sutras, writings on discipline and other Buddhist treatises. In 414 he returned by sea to China with many sutras and Buddha images.
  83. Asanga is said to have ascended to the Tushita Heaven and there inherited the teachings from Bodhisattva Miroku.
  84. Sunakshatra: A priest who devoted himself to Buddhist austerities and attained a limited form ofenlightentrient. But he was arrogant and thought he had mastered Buddhism. Later he turned to non-Buddhist teachings and discarded his faith in Buddhism. He opposed the Buddha, and is said to have fallen into hell alive.
  85. Seven cardinal sins: The five cardinal sins (see entry in the Glossary) and two others: (6) killing a monk of high virtue and (7) killing a teacher.
  86. Hokke Mongu Ki, vol. 7.
  87. This refers to the Tatsunokuchi Persecution which occurred in 1271.
  88. Six-volume Hatsunaion Sutra: One of the Chinese versions of the Nirvana Sutra, translated by Fa-hsien.
  89. Source unknown, possibly a rephrasing of the Hokke Gengi, vol. 10.
  90. Source unknown, possibly a rephrasing of the Hokke Shuku or the Kenkai Ron.
  91. The introduction of Buddhism to China in the tenth year of the YungP in g era is described in the History of the Later Han.
  92. Twenty-four persons in succession: The successors of Shakyamuni Buddha who appeared in the Former Day and propagated the Buddha's teachings. They are listed in the Fuhaza Sutra or Fuhbza Innenden (Stories of the Buddha's Successors), which says that in the days of Aryasinha, the twentyfourth successor, Buddhism in India was destroyed by King Mirakutsu and the succession ceased. See Twenty-four successors in the Glossary.
  93. Parshva: The tenth of the Buddha's twenty-four successors. According to the Record of the Western Regions, he was born in northern India and rcnounced secular life at the age of eight. In obedience to King Kanishka's orders, he summoned four hundred and ninety-nine monks and compiled the Buddhist sutras in Kashmir. This is known as the fourth assembly to compile thc Buddha's teachings.
  94. Anraku Sho.
  95. Senchaku Shu.
  96. Shugo Kokkai Sho.
  97. Eshin (942-1017): A priest of the Tendai sect. He wrote the 6ja Yasha and in this work emphasized the need to chant the name of Amida. Buddha. He influenced Mucci. Later he recanted and wrote the Ichij6 YAetsu, in which he asserted the supremacy of the Lotus Sutra.
  98. Ichija Yoetsu.
  99. Senchaku Shu: See p. 17, footnote 38.
  100. Three types of teachings: Zokyo, tsugyo and bekkyo, which indicate the provisional teachings. See p. 104, footnote 90.
  101. A rephrasing of the Hokke Gengi Shakusen, vol. 17.
  102. Hiei, Onjo-ji temple and To-ji temple: See p. 14, footnotes 31, 32.
  103. Kennin-ji: A head temple of the Rinzai school of Zen.
  104. Jufuku-ji and Kencho-ji: Temples of the Kencho-ji branch of the Plinzai school. Kencho-ji is the head temple of that branch.
  105. Shoichi: The founder of Tofuku-ji temple of the Rinzai school. He studied Zen in China and, after returning to Japan, propagated its teachings in the Imperial court.
  106. This event refers to the introduction of Buddhism to China. Emperor Ming was the second emperor of the Later Han dynasty,
  107. Robe and bowl: A monk's most important possessions. They sy-bolize that he has received the precepts. To "receive the robe and bowl" means to inherit the teachings of Zen.
  108. Fuchro: Ts'ung-i's annotation of Tien-t'ai's three major works (the Maka Shikan, the Hokke Gengi and the Hokke Mongu).
  109. Eight wrong views: The opposite of the Eightfold Path. The eight wrong views are: 1) wrong view; 2) wrong thinking; 3) wrong speech; 4) wrong action; 5) wrong way of life; 6) wrong endeavor; 7) wrong memory; and 8) wrong meditation. These are regarded as the causes of human suffering.
  110. Eight worldly desires: Another term for the eight winds: prosperity, decline, disgrace, honor, praise, censure, suffering and pleasure. People are inclined to be carried away by these eight winds.
  111. The height of the Buddha in his property-of-action aspect (ojin) is considered to be sixteen feet. This height is also a standard for statues of the Buddha.
  112. Five components: First of the three realms of existence-form, perception, conception, volition and consciousness.
  113. Four elements: Earth, water, fire and wind. The ancient Indians believed that all matter is composed of these four elements. They stand, respectively, for the qualities of solidity, moisture, heat and motion.
  114. This sentence may also be interpreted as, "When Bodhidharma was on his deathbed, they all regretted what they had done."
  115. Gomyo (750-834): A priest of the Hosso sect. He first entered Konkomy6ji temple and studied Buddhism under Priest Doko. Thereafter, he studied the Consciousness-Only doctrine. In 81g in his petition to the throne, Gomya condemned Dengyo for seeking permission from the emperor to construct a Mahayana ordination center. He competed with Dengyo in praying for rain, but was unsuccessful.
  116. Shuen (771-83 s): A priest of the Hosso sect. He was famed as the most learned priest in Kofuku-ji temple. In 802, he debated with Dengyo and was defeated. Together with Gomy6, he submitted a petition to the throne opposing Dengyo's plan to construct a Mahayana ordination center on Mt. Hiel'.
  117. Nen'a (1199- 1287): The founder of the Chinzei school of the Jodo sect. Also called Ry6chfi, he is regarded as the third patriarch of the Jodo sect, after Honen and Bencho.
  118. This Zen story is related in the Daibontenna-mombutsu-ketsugi Sutra. When the Buddha silently held up a flower before the assembly on Eagle Peak, no one could comprehend the meaning of this gesture. Mahakashyapa alone understood and smiled faintly. Thereby the Buddha transferred his enlightenment to Mahakashyapa, an enlightenment independent of any sutra. The Zen sect regards this incident as the origin of its sect. However, the abovementioned sutra is said to be an apocryphal work. The Zen sect also asserts that the enlightenment was handed down from Mahakashyapa to Ananda, from Ananda to Shanakavasa, and so on to Bodhidharma, the twenty-eighth patriarch of Indian Zen. Bodhidharma became the founder of Zen in China and transferred his enlightenment to Hui-k'o, the second patriarch of Chinese Zen. The sixth patriarch of Chinese Zen in the quotation refers to Hui-neng.
  119. When Buddhism was introduced to Japan, Mononobe no Moriya, one of the highest ministers, opposed it, while Prince Shotoku and Soga no Umako, who was also one of the highest ministers, accepted it. In addition, Mononobe no Moriya battled with Soga no Umako over the issue of the succession to the Imperial throne and was defeated.
  120. Lotus Sutra, chap. 27. The story of the one-eyed turtle emphasizes the difficulty of encountering Buddhism. See also One-eyed turtle in the Glossary.
  121. Chu Tao-sheng (d. 414): Chinese monk who insisted that even a man of disbelief has the potential to attain Buddhahood, for which he was banished from the community of believers. Later, when the Nirvana Sutra was translated into Chinese, his assertion was verified.
  122. Po Chu-i (772-846): A poet and official of the T'ang dynasty in China. He lost favor after remonstrating with the government and was exiled to a distant place in south China.
  123. Sugawara no Michizane (845-903): A Japanese statesman and scholar of the Heian period (794-1185). He was highly regarded by Emperor Daigo and became one of the highest ministers. But because of groundless accusations made by Fujiwara no Tokihira, another high minister, he was demoted to a far inferior position in Kyushu, the distant southern area. He was versed in history and excelled in poetry and literature. After his death, he was worshiped as a god, and a shrine was consecrated to this new deity at Kitano in Kyoto. Tenjin means "heavenly god."
  124. Hokke Gengi, vol. 6.
  125. This passage means that Bodhisattva Fukyo expiated his past offense of slandering the Law by being subjected to persecutions on account of the Law, and that he thereby changed his karma and attained Buddhahood.
  126. This story is found in the Daichido Ron. In the Latter Day of the Law of Sentara Buddha, Shariputra practiced the bodhisattva way. One day, a Brahman begged for Shariputra's eye, and Shariputra gave it to him. But the. Brahman was revolted by the smell of the eye and dropped it, trampling it into the dirt. Seeing this, Shariputra withdrew from the bodhisattva practice and fell into the hell of incessant suffering for countless aeons.
  127. Three factors leading to enlightenment: The innate Buddha nature, the wisdom to realize it and the external cause to manifest it. Here the Daishonin equates faith with wisdom.
  128. The Kegon sect asserts that all beings and phenomena arise from the mind and that they do not exist apart from the mind.
  129. Eightfold negation: Eight negative expressions in Nagarjuna's Daichio Ron: "neither birth nor death, neither cessation nor permanence, neither identity nor difference, neither coming nor going." The doctrine of the eight negations indicates that the Middle Way lies beyond attachment to either existence or nonexistence. In other words, it indicates that the true nature of all phenomena is ku and that all phenomena arise from dependent causation.
  130. Shingon type of meditation on the five elements of the universe: An esoteric form of meditation intended to make one understand that the five elements of earth, water, fire, wind and ku (latency) correspond to five parts of the body, namely, crown, face, breast, abdomen and knees. The eventual aim is to realize that the body itself is united with the five Buddhas who are embodiments of the five aspects of Dainichi Buddha's wisdom.
  131. King Sen'yo: A previous incarnation of Shakyamuni Buddha. According to the Nirvana Sutra,. vol. 12, King Sen'yo was the ruler of a great kingdom in Jambudvipa (India) and believed in the Mahayana sutras. When Brahmans slandered the Mahayana sutras, he had them put to death. The sutra says that because of this, he was thereafter never in danger of falling into hell.
  132. According to the Nirvana Sutra, the medicine which the old physician prescribed did harm to the people. To save their lives, the new physician persuaded the king to use stringent measures to prohibit the use of the medicine.
  133. Essential body of the Law: Dharma body. One of the three properties of the Buddha. See Three properties in the Glossary.
  134. In the sutra, the Buddha's reply begins with the sentence: "Kasho, it is because I defended the True Law that I was able to attain this diamond-like body." Since this sentence is the same as the following sentence in meaning, the first sentence has been omitted.
  135. Dainichi: See p. 64, footnote 9.
  136. The Zen sect asserts that the essence of Buddhism is transferred not through the sutras but from mind to mind.
  137. Three mysteries of body, mouth and mind: The body, mouth and mind of Dainichi Buddha, The esoteric teaching maintains that the body, mouth and mind of the Buddha are unimaginably profound and beyond common mortal understanding. Therefore they are called "mysteries." Since the body, mouth and mind of the Buddha are omnipresent, all beings are the mystic body of the Buddha, all sounds the mystic mouth (i.e., voice) of the Buddha, and all thoughts the mystic mind of the Buddha. In addition, the esoteric teaching asserts that the body, mouth and mind of common mortals are not essentially different from those of the Buddha, though their Buddha nature is clouded by illusion. In this sense, the body, mouth and mind of a common mortal in their essential nature are also called the three mysteries.
    From the viewpoint of practice, the esoteric teaching defines the body to be the making of mudras with the hands, the mouth to be the recitation of mantras (mystic words), and the mind to be meditation on the object of worship. By these three practices, the body, mouth and mind of the common mortal are said to be associated with those of the Buddha. Through this union, one can attain Buddhahood in his present form.
  138. Chuben Gikyo Sen.
  139. These words appear in a petition presented to the emperor by a Gyo, a priest of the Hosso sect, and other eminent priests. The words are ho cited in Dengyo's Kenkai Ron which he wrote in refutation. Saicho is another name for Dengyo.
  140. Kumarajiva accepted an invitation from Yao Hsing, king of the Later Ch'in dynasty, and came to the capital Ch'ang-an as the "teacher of the nation." There he translated 743 Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Chinese.
  141. This story appears in the Yakuo (23rd) chapter of the Lotus Sutra. In a past life, Yakuo burned his arms as an offering to the Lotus Sutra.
  142. According to Nagarjuna's Daichio Ron, a devil disguised as a Brahman appeared to Gyobo Bonji and said, "I will reveal to you the teaching if you are prepared to inscribe it by using your skin as paper, your bone as a pen and your blood as ink." When Gyobo demonstrated his seeking mind by complying, the devil disappeared and a real Buddha appeared to teach him the Law.

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