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  1. Three Rulers: Fu Hsi, Shen Nung and Huang Ti, legendary rulers of ancient China said to have realized model governments.
  2. Five Emperors: Shao Hao, Chuan Hsi!, Ti Kao, T'ang Yao and Yo Shun. They reigned after the Three Rulers.
  3. Three Kings: King (or Emperor) Y(j of the Hsia dynasty, King T'ang of the Yin dynasty and King Wen of the Chou dynasty. They reigned after the Five Emperors.
  4. When King Wu decided to revolt against Emperor Chou of the Yin dynasty, he carved a wooden figure of his father, who had cherished the same desire, before setting out on his campaign.
  5. During the Later Han dynasty, Ting Lan, who had lost his mother at the age of fifteen, made a statue of her and served it as if she were still alive.
  6. Emperor Chou was so absorbed in his affection for his consort, Ta Chi, that he totally neglected the government. When Pi Kan remonstrated with him, Emperor Chou flew into a rage and had him killed.
  7. Duke Yi of the state of Wei loved cranes and lived extravagantly, losing the support of the public. While his minister Hung Yen was away on ajourney, an enemy attacked Wei and killed Duke Yi. They ate the duke's flesh, except his liver, and then left the land. Returning, Hung Yen saw the disastrous scene and wept. He cut open his stomach and inserted the duke's liver in it to save him from shame and dishonor.
  8. T'ai-kung Wang: General who served King Wen and, after the king's death, served King Wu, Wen's son. He fought valorously in the battle with Emperor Chou of the Yin dynasty and contributed to the prosperity of the Chou dynasty.
  9. This assertion is found in the Chuang Tzu and the Shih Chi (Records of the Historian).
  10. Three Records, Five Canons, and Three Histories: The Three Records are said to record the deeds of the Three Rulers. The Five Canons are the writings of the Five Emperors. The Three Histories are the works of the Three Kings.
  11. Being: The principle that all phenomena emerge from the interaction Of two diametrically opposed forces, the Yang and Yin. The Yang and Yin originate from the primal force.
  12. Non-Being: The principle that all existences in the universe spring from Non-Being and ultimately return to Non-Being. In practical terms this view urges detachment from worldly affairs.
  13. Both Being and Non-Being: The principle that all things have the two fundamental aspects of Being and Non-Being.
  14. Principles of benevolence and righteousness: First two of the five Constant virtues taught by Confucius.
  15. Their names are unknown.
  16. Twenty-eight constellations of the sky: See p. 9, footnote 19.
  17. This is found in the Lieh Tzu, an early Taoist text.
  18. In ancient times, the Chinese regarded propriety and music as requisite for enhancing one's sense of morality, to maintain social order and for cultivating one's aesthetic sense.
  19. Precepts, meditation and wisdom: The three types of learning, considered to cover all aspects of Buddhist doctrine and practice. The purpose of precepts is to stem injustice and stop evil. Meditation indicates focusing one's mind and achieving tranquillity. Wisdom signifies that which enables one to master his illusions and realize the truth.
  20. Maka Shikan Bugyaden Guketsu, vol. 6.
  21. Maka Shikan, vol. 6.
  22. Three sages: Confucius (the founder of Confucianism), Yen Hui (Confucius' disciple) and Lao Tzu (the founder of Taoism).
  23. KaPila nkhya one oi Uluka and Rishabha: Kapila was a founder of the Sahoo the six philosophical schools in ancient India. Uluka was also called Kanada, a founder of the Vaishesika school, one of the above six schools. Rishabha's teachings are said to have prepared the way for Jainism.
  24. Five regions of India: That is, the whole of India. The five regions are the eastern, southern, western, northern and central parts of India.
  25. Five precepts: See P. 3 5, footnote 8 1.
  26. Ten good precepts: Prohibitions against the ten evils of killing, theft adultery, lying, flattery, defaming, duplicity, greed, anger, and ignorant views.
  27. Worlds of form and formlessness: The two highest worlds of the threefold world. The world of form is a realm in which inhabitants are free from desire and feed on light. The world of formlessness is a realm of spirit which transcends matter.
  28. Source unknown.
  29. Source unknown.
  30. Higher states of rebirth: The births and deaths which men of the two realms (Learning and Realization) as well as bodhisattvas undergo as they advance in their practice. This process transcends the cycle of the six lower worlds (from Hell through Heaven) and eventually leads to enlightenment.
  31. Lower cycle of birth and death: The cycle of birth and death in the six lower worlds.
  32. Fundamental ignorance: Fundamental darkness of the true nature of one's life, which gives rise to all desires and illusions.
  33. Eighty thousand: Not an exact number. This figure is often used in Buddhist scriptures to indicate "a great many."
  34. A passage from the Muryagi Sutra, chap. 2, which reads, "In these more than forty years, I have not yet revealed the truth."
  35. A passage from the second chapter of the Lotus Sutra which reads, "The World-Honored One has long expounded his doctrines and now must reveal the truth.
  36. A passage from the eleventh chapter of the Lotus Sutra.
  37. This is described in the jinriki (2 1 St) chapter of the Lotus Sutra and represents the truth of the Buddha's teaching.
  38. Two important teachings: The theory of ichinen sanzen found in the theoretical teaching of the Lotus Sutra, and the actuality of ichinen sanzen revealed in the essential teaching of the Lotus Sutra. The latter may be further interpreted in two ways: as the reality of Shakyamuni Buddha's enlightened life, and as the life of the original Buddha or the Law of Nam-myoho-rengekyo, which the Daishonin embodied in the Gohonzon.
  39. Doctrine of ichinen sanzen: Here refers to the Law of Nam-myohorenge-kyo.
  40. Eight worlds: Hell, Hunger, Animality, Anger, Humanity (or Tranquillity), Heaven (or Rapture), Bodhisattva and Buddhahood.
  41. Nirvana Sutra.
  42. Fubukkya and gakubuppaja. Fubukkya indicates those who incorporate the Hinayana teachings into their own school and claim that it is their own doctrine. Gakubuppaja indicates those who plagiarize Buddhist ideas and set forth the Mahayana teaching as the doctrine oftheir own school. They seem to learn Buddhism but later lose the correct view. '
  43. Wei Yflan-sung: Buddhist monk in China in the sixth century. Out of a desire for fame and profit, he began to associate with a group of Taoists and finally returned to lay life.
  44. Twelve divisions: Classification of all the sutras according to style and content.
  45. Tz'u-en (632-682): A riest of the T'ang dynasty and direct successor to Hsiian-tsang, founder of Xi Fa-hsiang (Hosso) sect. He engaged in the translation of sutras.
  46. Mudras and mantras: Mudras are gestures made by joining the fingers together in a variety of ways so as to symbolize religious doctrine and enlightenment. Mantras are secret words and mystic syllables which are supposed to embody esoteric powers.
  47. This truth is expounded in the theoretical teaching, or the first fourteen chapters, of the Lotus Sutra.
  48. This is revealed in the Juryo (16th) chapter, in the essential teaching, or the latter fourteen chapters, of the Lotus Sutra.
  49. The eight persons mentioned in the text, from Shariputra to Rahula, are counted among the ten major disciples of Shakyamuni Buddha. Shariputra was known as the foremost in wisdom among all the sh5mon disciples of the Buddha. It was prophesied in the Hiyu (third) chapter that he would attain Buddhahood. Mahakashyapa was known as the foremost in ascetic practice (dhuta) to purify the mind and body, Subhuti as the foremost in understanding the doctrine of kf4, Katyayana as the foremost in debating, and Maudgalyayana as the foremost in occult powers. The Juki (sixth) chapter of the Lotus Sutra predicts that these four disciples will attain Buddhahood. Purna, noted as the foremost in eloquence, was given a prediction ofBuddhahood in the Gohyakudeshi-juki (eighth) chapter. Ananda heard more of the Buddha's teachings than any other disciples and it was prophesied in the Ninki (ninth) chapter that he would attain Buddhahood. Rahula, known as the foremost in inconspicuous observance of the precepts, also received a prophecy of Buddhahood in the same chapter.
  50. The prophecy of Buddhahood for the five hundred and seven hundred shomon and engaku disciples appears in the Gohyaku-deshijuki (eighth) chapter, and for the two thousand shomon, in the ninth chapter. Mahaprajapati and Yashodhara were, respectively, Shakyamuni's aunt and wife. The Kanji 0 3th) chapter predicts that both of them will attain Buddhahood.
  51. Lotus Sutra, chap. 2.
  52. Muryagi Sutra, chap. 2. The Mury5gi (Infinite Meaning) Sutra is an introduction to the Lotus Sutra, and thus, in a broad sense, is regarded as a part of the Lotus Sutra's teachings.
  53. Lotus Sutra, chap. 2.
  54. Ibid.
  55. Snow Mountains: The Himalayas.
  56. Jambudvipa: 0ap ichiembudai) According to ancient Indian cosmology, one of four continents lying, respectively, to the north, south, east and west of Mt. Sumeru, the highest of all mountains. The southern continent is called Jambudvipa because there is a grove ofjambu trees there.
  57. Yojana: (Jap yujun) A unit of distance in ancient India, said to be the distance which an army could cover in a day. It is commonly thought to have been approximately twenty-four kilometers.
  58. Watery circle: According to ancient Indian belief, one of four circles made, respectively, of gold, water, wind, and W, which supported the earth.
  59. Four types of obligation: One's debt of gratitude to one's parents, teacher, sovereign, and the three treasures of Buddhism.
  60. Two hundred and fifty precepts: Precepts for the monks of Hinayana Buddhism.
  61. Three thousand rules of conduct: Rules for Hinayana monks based on the two hundred and fifty precepts.
  62. Three types of meditation: Three types of meditation taught in the Kusha Ron. The first indicates a meditation for lay people who have not yet extinguished delusions. The second indicates a meditation for lay people who carry out a definite practice, but their meditation is still not free from delusions and earthly desires. The third meditation enables one to attain wisdom c0tupletely free from delusions-meditation for those who enter the priesthood.
  63. Vimalakirti: Uap Yuimakitsu) Rich merchant of the city of Vaishali and a lay believer who embraced Mahayana Buddhism. The Vimalakirti Sutra depicts him as refuting the Hinayana ideal of the shomon disciples.
  64. Arhatship: The highest state of Hinayana enlightenment in which all delusions are said to be eradicated. Those who have achieved this state are called arhats.
  65. This powerful meditation: The meditation which is supposed to prevent one from being troubled by desire and delusion.
  66. Six heavens of the world of desire: The world of desire, first of the threefold world, contains both the first six heavens in the realm ofHeaven and the five lower worlds from Hell to Humanity. In these six heavens desires are said to be satisfied.
  67. Four continents: See footnote 56.
  68. Tower decorated with seven kinds of treasures: The Treasure Tower adorned with seven kinds of precious materials, including gold and silver, which is described in the HW (i i th) chapter of the Lotus Sutra.
  69. Great spiritual powers: The ten great mystic powers Shakyamuni Buddha displayed in thejinriki (2 ist) chapter to show the greatness of the Lotus Sutra and the significance of propagation after his death. After Shakyamun, manifested these ten great mystic powers, he transferred the Mystic Law to the Bodhisattvas of the Earth.
  70. This indicates that the Buddha's words are true and valid.
  71. This indicates that the Buddha's wisdom universally illuminates the ten directions.
  72. Lotus Sutra, chap. 21.
  73. Another chapter: The Zokurui (22nd) chapter of the Lotus Sutra.
  74. This indicates the preaching of the Kegon Sutra.
  75. Major world system: In modern terms, a galaxy. Buddhist scriptures describe three kinds of world systems. The smallest, a minor world system, consists of a world with a sun, moon, and planets, and would be similar to today's concept of a solar system. One thousand minor world systems constitute a medium world system, and one thousand medium world systems form a major world system.
  76. Four Buddhas: Ashuku Buddha in an eastern land of the universe, Hoso Buddha in a southern land, Muryoju Buddha in a western land, and Mimyosho Buddha in a northern land.
  77. Six directions: East, west, north, south, up and down.
  78. Lotus Sutra, chap. 3.
  79. According to one of the oldest extant histories, the Nihon Shoki (Chronicles of Japan), Buddhism was introduced to Japan in 5 52 A.D.
  80. A passage from the Hota (i ith) chapter, a part of the verse section explaining the six difficult and nine easy acts.
  81. Second important teaching of the Lotus Sutra: The revelation of the fact that Shakyamuni Buddha attained enlightenment countless aeons ago. This doctrine appears in thejuryb (16th) chapter of the essential teaching of the Lotus Sutra. The first important teaching is the doctrine that persons in the two realms of sh&mon and engaku can attain Buddhahood. This doctrine is expounded in the theoretical teaching of the Lotus Sutra.
  82. Kalpa of Continuance, in the ninth small kalpa: The second of the four stages of formation, continuance, decline and disintegration which a world is said to go through. Each of these four stages lasts for twenty small kalpas or aeons. A small kalpa is approximately sixteen million years long. According to the Kusha Ron, during the kalpa of continuance, the human life span is said to undergo a repeated cycle of decrease and increase. In the first hundred years of the kalpa it numbers eighty thousand years. Each hundred years it decreases by a factor of one year, until it finally measures ten years. Thereafter, it increases by one year every hundred years until it again measures eighty thousand years. In the Kalpa of Continuance, this decrease and increase (consisting of one small kapla) is repeated twenty times. Shakyamuni Buddha appeared in the ninth period of decrease.
  83. This ceremony is depicted in the Kegon Sutra.
  84. Ten mysteries and the six forms: Doctrines of the Kegon Sutra. The ten mysteries represent the ten characteristics of the interdependency of all things and phenomena. The six forms represent the six aspects of everything: the whole containing the parts, the interdependency of the parts making the whole, the unity of the parts in the whole, the variety of the parts, the variety making the whole, and the identity of the parts.
  85. The Daijuku Sutra says that during this meditation, the spiritual and physical functions of all beings are reflected within the mind of a bodhisattva, just as all things are reflected in the ocean.
  86. In the Hbben (second) chapter of the Lotus Sutra, Shakyamuni expounded the Ten Factors to teach that all people have the Buddha nature, thus providing a theoretical basis for the assertion that an people can become Buddhas. Subsequently, in the same chapter, Shakyamuni declares that the goal of Buddhist practice is not the three realms of shamon (Learning), engaku (Realization) and Bodhisattva, but the supreme state of Buddhahood. In the following chapters he predicts that the people in the realms of shaMon and engaku will attain Buddhahood. These are the sections which "discuss the three realms of shamon, engaku and Bodhisattva as provisional goals."
  87. Lotus Sutra, chap. 2.
  88. Eight chapters: Eight chapters from the Haben (second) chapter to the Ninki (ninth) chapter.
  89. Lotus Stara, chap. 2.
  90. Effects of the four teachings: T'ien-t'ai classified Shakyamuni's sutras into four groups, according to content: zokya, which corresponds to the Hinayana teachings; tsfigyo, or lower provisional Mahayana teachings; bekkyo, a higher level of provisional Mahayana; and engya, or true Mahayana. Engyb translates literally as "perfect teaching." The perfect teaching in the true sense of the word is the Lotus Sutra, the Buddha's highest teaching. Superficially, however, the teachings of some sutras are similar to those of the Lotus Stara. From a broad perspective, these teachings are also included in engya. The four teachings in the text are mentioned in this broad context. Accordingly, the four -Lotus Sutra teachings. "Th e teachings here indicate all of the pre e , flects of the four teachings" indicates the enlightenment one is supposed to attain by practicing the four teachings. However, the Lotus Sutra denies the attainment of enlightenment by those teachings.
  91. Causes: Practices of the four teachings for the attainment of Buddhahood.
  92. In the Agon sutras Shakyamuni preaches Hinayana teachings. Therefore, Shakyamuni in the Agon sutras is inferior to the Shakyamuni who preaches the Mahayana teachings.
  93. Hokke Gengi, vol. 7.
  94. Hosshin, hoshin and 5jin: The three bodies, or enlightened properties, of the Buddha Uap sanjin). The hosshin, or Dhatma body of the Buddha, is the entity of the Buddha's life, the hoshin, or wisdom body, indicates the spiritual aspect of the Buddha's life and the 6jin, or manifested body, the physical aspect (f the Buddha's life, or his merciful action to save all people.
  95. Asanga: Scholar of the Consciousness-Only doctrine. He was born to a Brahman family in Gandhara in northern India. Vasubandhu was his younger brother. After renouncing secular life, he initially studied the Hinayana teachings but was dissatisfied with these doctrines and made efforts to master the Mahayana teachings as well. When Vasubandhu became attached to Hinayana teachings, Asanga converted him to Mahayana Buddhism.
  96. Tushita: Fourth of the six heavens in the world of desire, one division of the threefold world.
  97. Ayodhya: A state in northeast India. Asanga was a native ofGandhara, but lived most of his life in Ayodhya.
  98. Dharmapala, Nanda, Shilabhadra: Dharmapala was one of the ten great scholars of the Vijnaptimatrata (Consciousness-Only) school. He became the head of the Nalanda Monastery. The Hosso sect originates from this Vijnaptimatrata school. Nanda was also one of the ten great scholars of this school. Shilabhadra was Dharmapala's disciple. When Hsiian-tsang visited the Nalanda Monastery, Shilabhadra, then head of the monastery, transmitted the teachings of the Vijnaptimatrata school to him.
  99. Shiladitya: Ruler in India during the former half of the seventh century. He had faith in Buddhism and built many stupas. He is said to have shown special favor to Shilabhadra and Hsiian-tsang.
  100. K'uei-chi: Also called Tz'u-en from the name of the temple where he lived. See footnote 45.
  101. Doji (675-744) and Dosho (629-700): Doji was the third patriarch of the Sanron sect in Japan, He is said to have been well versed in the Hosso as well as the Sanron doctrines. He went to China in 701. Dosho was the founder of the Hossb sect in Japan. In 653, he went to China and studied the Hosso doctrines under Hsiian-tsang.
  102. Yamashina Temple: The old name of Koftikuji temple, the head tcmplc of the Hosso sect.
  103. Those who do not possess the innate nature ... the realms ofshamon and engaku: According to the Hosso sect, by nature people are divided into the following five groups-the group predestined for shomon, the group predestined for engaku, the group predestined for bodhisattva, the indeterminate group and the group without the Buddha nature. The first two groups have no prospect for attaining Buddhahood. The third group can eventually attain Buddhahood because they have the seed of Buddhahood within. The fourth or indeterminate group may eventually attain any of the realms of sh5mon, engaku or Bodhisattva. The fifth, the group without the Buddha nature, have no prospect for attaining Buddhahood. It follows, therefore, that the group predestined for bodhisattva and some of the indeterminate group can attain Buddhahood.
  104. Hosso and Sanron sects: See p. 17, footnote 41. The Sanron sect is often compared with the Hosso sect. It denies the reality of existence on the basis of the doctrine ofka. In contrast, the Hosso sect asserts that all phenomena are derived from the alaya-consciousness.
  105. "1" means Mahavairochana Buddha.
  106. Silla and Paekche: Ancient states in the Korean Peninsula.
  107. Vatsiputriya and Vaipulya: Vatsiputriya studied the Hinayana teachings but reduced them to the level of non-Buddhist teachings. Vaipulya incorporated the Mahayana teachings into non-Buddhist teachings in order to elevate the latter.
  108. Muku and Mato: Sanskrit unknown. Muku is said to have opposed Vasubandhu and died insane. Mato was a scholar of the Sankhya school, one of the six philosophical schools in ancient India. It is said that he was refuted by Tokue, one of the ten great scholars of the Vijnaptimatrata school, and vomited blood until he died.
  109. This age is a period ofdecrease, in which the human life span is said to diminish. This is mentioned in the treatise Kusha Ron. See also footnote 82.
  110. Hotnetsujin Sutra: The translator of the Chinese version is unknown. This sutra describes how the Buddha's teachings disappear after his death. It also explains that in the Latter Day of the Law devils appear in the form of priests and carry out slanderous acts against the Law.
  111. Third group: Reference to the story of DaitsCi Buddha and his sixteen sons which appears in the seventh chapter of the Lotus Sutra. In the remote past of sanzenjintengo, Daitsui Buddha preached the Lotus Sutra to his sixteen sons. These sons then preached the sutra to the people, some of whom attained enlightenment. These people belong to the first group. The second group comprises those who took faith in the sutra at that time but later discarded their faith, accepting lower teachings of Hinayana Buddhism. However, these people heard the Lotus Sutra again and attained enlightenment when the sixteenth son appeared in India as Shakyamuni Buddha. The third group is those who heard the Lotus Sutra in sanzen-jintengo but did not take faith in it and could not attain Buddhahood even when reborn in the lifetime of Shaky uni Buddha.
  112. Tao-ch'o (562-645), Shan-tao (613-681) and Honen (1133-1212): Priests of the Jodo sect. Tao-ch'o was the second patriarch of the Jodo sect in China, and Shan-tao was the third patriarch of the sect. Honen was the founder of the Jodo sect in Japan.
  113. Tao-ch'o's Anraku Shfi.
  114. Ibid.
  115. Shan-tao's (5jo Raisan.
  116. Fire at the end of the kalpa of decline: A world was said to go through a continuous cycle of formation, continuance, decline and disintegration, each of these four phases lasting for one medium kalpa. The end of the kalpa of decline is marked by a great fire which consumes the world.
  117. These persecutions mean the exiles to the Izu Peninsula and Sado Island.
  118. Gautama: Surname of Shakyamuni Buddha.
  119. Hokke Mongu.
  120. Hokke Mongu Ki.
  121. Tokuichi: Priest of the Hosso sect in eighth-century Japan. He had a debate with the Great Teacher Dengyo and was defeated.
  122. Chih-i: Vien-t'ai.
  123. Shugo Kokkai Sh5.
  124. Chih-tu: A disciple of the Great Teacher Miao-lo.
  125. Katsu: A Tungusic nation that ruled over the northeastern part of China and northern Korea in the sixth and seventh centuries.
  126. In the twenty-line verse of the Kanji (13th) chapter, Shakyaniun, prophesied that the three powerful enemies would arise to persecute the votaries of the Lotus Sutra in the Latter Day of the Law. This passage represents the first of the three powerful enemies.
  127. This passage indicates the second of the three powerful enemies.
  128. Six supernatural powers: See p. is, footnote 36.
  129. This passage indicates the third of the three powerful enemies, that is, those who enjoy the respect of the general public and who, in fear of losing fame or profit, induce the authorities to persecute the votary.
  130. Madhyantika: A disciple of Ananda. He is regarded as one of the twenty-four successors of the Buddhist teachings.
  131. Sha-hokekya and Myoha-renge-kyo: Two of the three extant Chinese versions of the Lotus Sutra. The three are Shu-hokekyo translated by Dharmaraksha, Myoho-renge-kyo by Kumarajiva, and Tempon-hokekya by JnanaguPta and Dharmagupta. Among these versions, Kumarajiva's Myoho-renge-kyo has been read more widely than the other two.
  132. Chi-cha: Son ofShou-meng, king ofWum China. In 544 B.c. he was ordered to visit other countries as an envoy. At that time, he was given a valuable sword. When he happened to be passing through the country of Hsfi, the lord of the state saw Chi-cha's sword and wanted it, though he did not dare Say so. Chi-cha understood the lord's desire and in his heart promised to give him the sword ~fter he had fulfilled his mission and returned to Hsii. However, when he came back to Hsfi, he found the lord already dead. True to his Promise, Chi-cha offered the sword at the lord's grave.
  133. Wang Shou: The details of the story are unknown; it symbolizes ang Shou's deep gratitude for the natural environment and sense ofintegrity.
  134. Illusions of thought and desire: First of the three categories of illusion established by T'ien-t'ai. See Three illusions in the Glossary.
  135. Eight phases of a Buddha's existence: i) descending from Heaven; 2) entering the mother's body; 3) coming out of the mother's body; 4) renouncing secular fife; s) conquering devils; 6) attaining enlightenment; 7) preaching the Law; and 8) entering nirvana.
  136. When Mao Pao was walking along the Yangtze River, he saw? fisherman catch a turtle and prepare to kill it. He bought the turtle and put It back in the water. Later, Mao Pao was defeated by a powerful general called Stone Tiger. When he fled in retreat to the Yangtze River, the turtle which he had saved earlier appeared and carried Mao Pao on its back to the opposite shore.
  137. The K'un-ming Pond was a pond constructed by Emperor Wu of the Former Han dynasty. One day he saw a fish in the pond suffering because of a hook caught in its throat. The emperor felt pity for the fish and removed the hook, putting the fish back into the water. Later, to repay his obligation, the fish offered a bright pearl to the emperor.
  138. Dronodana: Younger brother of King Shuddhodana, the father of Shakyamuni.
  139. Emperor Chieh and Emperor Chou: Evil rulers of antiquity. Because Emperor Chieh, the seventeenth ruler of the Hsia dynasty, perpetrated every possible atrocity, he was overthrown by his enemies and the Hsia dynasty Perished. Emperor Chou, the last ruler of the Yin dynasty, was a slave to his consort, Ta Chi, and totally misgoverned the country. He was defeated by King Wu of the Chou dynasty.
  140. Twelve hundred shanion: Shamon disciples who received a prophecy of attaining Buddhahood in the eighth chapter of the Lotus Surra. Each of them was given the title of Universal Brightness Tathagata.
  141. Thousand shamon disciples: The disciples who gathered after the Buddha's death at the first great assembly to compile his teachings.
  142. Heavenly Eye, Wisdom Eye, Dharma Eye and Buddha Eye: Four of the five types of vision. Eye here means perceptive faculty. See Five types of vision in the Glossary.
  143. Hakei: Details unknown. The hakei is said to be bigger than a tiger.
  144. Four great shamon disciples: Maudgalyayana, Mahakashyapa, Katyayana and Subhuti. The passage appears in the fourth chapter of the Lotus Sutra. In this chapter, they say they have realized that the purpose of Buddhist practice is to attain Buddhahood and not to attain Learning, Realization or Bodhisattva.
  145. Shomon literally means to hear (mon) the voice (sho) of the Buddha. In this passage, a true shamon is defined as one who engages in altruistic practice, that is, causing the voice (sho) of the Buddha to be heard (mon).
  146. Rare thing: The supreme teaching or Lotus Sutra.
  147. Offer him their hands and feet: To serve the Buddha and practice his teachings.
  148. Four inferior flavors: The pre-Lotus Sutra teachings. T'ien-t'ai divided Shakyamuni's teachings into five periods-Kegon, Agon, Mdo, Hannya and Hokke-Nehan. He compared these to the five flavors produced in the processing of milk-the flavors of fresh milk, cream, curdled milk, butter and ghee (a kind of highly clarified butter). The four flavors thus indicates all sutras before the Lotus Sutra.
  149. This story appears in the Vimalakirti Sutra. When Mahakashyapa heard Vimalakirti speak about enlightenment, he could not understand it at all and wept over the fact that he did not inherently possess the seed of Buddhahood. The Vimalakirti Sutra relates that the sound of his weeping echoed throughout the universe.
  150. i5o. This story is also found in the Vimalakirti Sutra. One day Subhuti came to Vimalakirti, asking for alms. Vimalakirti filled Subhuti's bowl but told him that he did not deserve to receive alms and that those who offered alms to him would invariably fall into the three evil paths. At that time Subhuti was so shocked that he almost went off without his alms bowl.
  151. This story is in the Daichido Ron. When Shakyamuni Buddha reproached Shariputra for eating impure food, Shariputra was so surprised that he spat it out. Impure food is so called because it is not an offering made from the offerer's heart. The implication is that one who receives alms frorn slanderers is not qualified to attain enlightenment.
  152. This story appears in the Vimalakirti Sutra. When Shakyamuni ;Buddha saw Puma preaching the Hinayana teachings to the people, he told Puma that he should not put impure things into a precious vessel.
  153. In the period before Shakyamuni renounced the secular life, he married Yashodhara, a beautiful woman whom Devadatta had wished to marry. As a result, Devadatta nurtured a grudge against Shakyamuni.
  154. Because Utpalavarna reproved Devadatta for being a great enemy of Buddhism, he was so enraged that he beat her to death.
  155. Kalodayin was a handsome man of fine presence., One day when he was going about begging, a woman offered him alms. Her husband happened to see this and was enraged. He killed Kalodayin and cast the body in a manure pit and put horse dung over the corpse to hide it.
  156. When Mahakashyapa felt that death was approaching, he went to Mr. Kukkutapada in Magadha, Central India, where he entered into meditation and died. It is said that Mahakashyapa will reappear when Bodhisattva Miroku appears in the world, 5,670 million years after the Buddha's death.
  157. "The fifth five hundred years" and "worldwide kosen-rufu": References to a passage from the Yakuo (23rd) chapter of the Lotus Sutra, which reads, "In the fifth five hundred years after my death, accomplish worldwide kosen-ruju and never allow its flow to cease."
  158. Special transmission: A tenet of the Zen sect. This sect denies the sutras, maintaining that the Buddha's enlightenment is not transmitted by the 11 Buddhist scriptures but is transferred from mind to mind.
  159. fo I sq. Discard! close! ignore! abandon!: A quotation from Horen, the, under of the Jodo sect in Japan, which appears in his treatise Senchaku Shfi. lril,. this work, he insists that people discard everything but the three basic sutras o~ his sect.
  160. These four kinds of ten stages partially comprise the fifty-two stages of bodhisattva. practice, together with the first ten stages of faith and the last two stages-tagaku (the stage almost equal to enlightenment) and myokakt' (enlightenment).
  161. The Kegon Sutra explains that these great bodhisattvas devoted themselves to religious practice. under Vairochana Buddha.
  162. Fushigi enlightenment: Fushigi literally means mystic. Fushigi enlightenment is a kind of Mahayana enlightenment.
  163. Two deities and the three ascetics: The two deities are Shiva and Vishnu, and the three ascetics are Kapila, Uluka and Rishabha.
  164. After he renounced secular life, Shakyamuni engaged in various practices for twelve years until he attained enlightenment. It is said that for the former six years he engaged in ascetic practice and for the latter six years he engaged in the practice of meditation. These two types of practices correspond to "difficult and easy practices."
  165. These principles indicate enlightenment as described in Hinayana teachings.
  166. This story appears in the first chapter of the Lotus Sutra. In the distant past, Monju appeared as Bodhisattva Myoko, a disciple of Ncihigatsu Tomyo Buddha. After the Buddha's death, Myoko continued to embrace the Lotus Sutra which his teacher had expounded. The Buddha had fathered eight sons before his death. These sons of the departed Buddha practiced under Myoko until they attained Buddhahood. The last of them to attain Buddhahood was called Nento Buddha, under whom Shakyamuni practiced the sutra for enlightenment in a previous existence.
  167. In the Muryogi Sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha used the term "true entity," but did not reveal what the true entity is.
  168. Wheel-turning kings: Kings who rule the four continents surrounding Mt. Sumeru by turning the wheels of the Law. These wheels are of four kinds: gold, silver, copper and iron. The Gold-wheel-turning King rules all four lands; the Silver-wheel-turning King, the eastern, western , and southern lands; the Copper-wheel-turning King, the eastern and southern lands; and the Iron-wheel-turning King, the southern land.
  169. Three teachings: Zakyb, tsfigyo and bekkya. Those teachings preached prior to the Lotus Sutra.
  170. Sad corresponds to sad of Saddharmapundarika sutra, the Sanskrit name of the Lotus Sutra.
  171. Daija Shiron Gengi Ki: "Annotation of the Four Mahayana Theses." This treatise, which belongs to the Samon sect, was written by Hui-chiln.
  172. It is said that in India six was the base of the ancient numerical system.
  173. Chia-hsiang: A priest of the Samon sect in China.
  174. The Shingon sect asserts that Nagarjuna received the Dainichi Sutra fr(m Bodhisattva Kongosatta along with other esoteric teachings preserved in all iron tower in southern Asia.
  175. The exact transliteration is Namu-myoho-renge-kyo,   but it is correctly pronounced  Nam-myoho-renge-kyo.
  176. Six types of practices leading to perfection: The six paramitas. See Six Nramitas in the Glossary.
  177. Thirty-two distinguishing features and eighty physical characteristics! Attributes of the Buddha described in the provisional teachings. These unusual qualities awed the people and awoke in them a desire for the Buddha's teachings. They signify the Buddha's wisdom, ability, mercy, etc.
  178. Maka Shikan Bugyadett Guketsu, vol. 5.
  179. One of the four universal vows of a Buddha or bodhisattva. The other three are to remove all earthly desires, to study all the Buddhist teachings, and to attain the supreme enlightenment through the practice of Buddhism.
  180. Shugo Kokkai Sho.

Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin; Vol 2. Page 86.

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